The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a Global Action Plan (GAP) on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR). However, recent reviews highlight that the majority of national AMR strategies are underfinanced and/ or are insufficiently aligned with the GAP goals and guidelines. This policy brief reviews the AMR National Action Plans (NAPs) of Italy, the Netherlands and Spain to identify gaps and provide recommendations for future adaptations.

Italy, Spain, and the Netherlands were evaluated using a modified assessment tool developed by the European Commission in the Overview report: Member States’ One Health National Action Plans against Antimicrobial Resistance. This revealed varying compliance levels: Italy (72%), Spain (51%), and the Netherlands (37%). All three countries have National NAPs in place. Italy and Spain recently updated their plans in 2022, whereas the Netherlands last published theirs for the 2015-2019 period.

This policy brief lays out specific recommendations for improving AMR national action plans under the general themes of:

  • Enhancing NAP structures and the One Health Approach
  • Improving data and surveillance
  • Effective implementation and awareness raising
  • Research, innovation and antibiotic availability

Download the policy brief to find out more about the background, findings and specific recommendations for policymakers and other stakeholders.