Insulin, discovered in 1921, was first used in 1922. At the time, it was considered medical miracle that changed the diagnosis for those living with type 1 diabetes from a death sentence to a manageable condition. Today, all those living with type 1 diabetes, and an estimated 63 million living with type 2 diabetes, use insulin. Despite the fact that insulin has been used for nearly 100 years, an estimated 1 in 2 people who need it cannot afford and/or access this much-needed medicine. Since its inception, HAI’s Addressing the Challenge and Constraints of Insulin Sources and Supply (ACCISS) Study has been working to identify and address the inequities and inefficiencies in the global insulin market. 

The study is co-led by Dr Margaret Ewen and Molly Lepeska (HAI) and Dr David Beran (Geneva University Hospitals and the University of Geneva). It also brings together a large group of leading international experts as members of its Advisory Group. The study is funded by a grant from The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust and Stichting ICF.

To learn more about the ACCISS Study and our tools, please visit our Toolkit at